How to Grow and Care for Norfolk Island Pine

Updated: 02 Nov, 2023


The Norfolk Island pine (Araucaria heterophylla) may bear the name “pine,” but it is a botanical cousin to the monkey puzzle tree. It is a popular choice for landscaping in subtropical climates within North America, particularly in USDA zones 10 to 11, and is also commonly cultivated indoors. With its impressive stature, boasting a tall, straight trunk and beautifully balanced branches adorned with inward-curving needles, this tree can reach staggering heights of up to 200 feet when grown outdoors. When cultivated indoors, it typically attains a more manageable height of 3 to 8 feet, and can even be trained into a bonsai or miniature form. Whether it graces an outdoor landscape or an indoor space, the Norfolk pine thrives on ample sunlight.

In certain areas, the slow-growing Norfolk Island pine is cherished as a living Christmas tree, often adorned with festive ribbons and ornaments. Unfortunately, it is frequently cast aside after the holiday season. However, with proper care, this tree can serve as a permanent, evergreen addition to an indoor setting, or it can find a new home in the great outdoors once springtime arrives.

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Common NameNorfolk pine, Norfolk Island pine, Australian pine
Botanical NameAraucaria heterophylla
Plant TypeTree
Mature Size3-200 ft. tall, 3-25 ft. wide
Sun ExposureFull, partial
Soil TypeSandy
Soil pHAcidic
Hardiness Zones10-11 (USDA)
Native AreaPacific, Norfolk Island

Norfolk Island Pine Care

Caring for a Norfolk Island Pine is relatively straightforward and involves the following key steps:

  • Choose a location with ample sunlight for planting.
  • Ensure the temperature remains above 35°F in the chosen area.
  • Indoors, water your Norfolk Pine at least every two weeks.
  • If potted indoors, mist the plant daily to provide the necessary humidity.
  • Test the soil pH and make adjustments if it is too acidic.

Norfolk Island pines exhibit adaptability to both indoor and outdoor environments. While they do have preferred conditions, they are forgiving plants that can thrive in various settings. For optimal outdoor growth, plant the tree in well-draining, moderately moist, and sandy soil, in a location with full sun exposure. Once established, it can tolerate somewhat drier conditions.

For indoor cultivation, opt for a potting mix that is porous, sandy, and slightly acidic. Enhance the mix with additional peat moss and sand to improve acidity and drainage. Keep the soil consistently moist but not waterlogged, and provide as much light as possible. These trees flourish in either full sun or bright, indirect light, so consider placing them near a south-facing window for optimal growth.

A Norfolk Island pine thrives in sunlight and prefers full sun whenever possible. However, it can tolerate lower light levels for extended periods, making it suitable for indoor cultivation during the winter. Come summer, consider relocating it to a sunny outdoor spot.

If you notice your plant becoming leggy indoors, it’s likely due to a combination of low light and excessive fertilizer. In this case, reduce the fertilizer until the plant receives more sunlight. Rotating the plant regularly ensures all sides receive equal light exposure.

Plant your Norfolk Island pine in soil that is well-draining, sandy, and slightly acidic. These plants have an affinity for acidic conditions, with an ideal pH range of 4.5-5.5. Regularly checking the soil’s pH level with a simple test will contribute to the long-term health and happiness of your tree.

While Norfolk Island pines are somewhat drought-tolerant, it’s important to water them consistently. For indoor plants, this means watering approximately once every one to two weeks. When watering, allow excess moisture to drain from the bottom of the pot. Outdoor trees prefer the soil to retain some moisture.

Temperature and Humidity:
Originating from the South Pacific, Norfolk Island pines thrive in warmer, more humid climates, ideally between 65°F and 70°F. They can withstand brief periods of cooler or warmer temperatures, but prolonged exposure to temperatures below 35°F may be detrimental.

To pamper your Norfolk pine, consider using a humidifier to elevate the moisture levels around the plant.

Types of Norfolk Island Pines

The Norfolk Island pine available in the market is exclusively the Araucaria heterophylla variety. This plant does not have any cultivars or named variations. Occasionally, a few other species from the same botanical family may mistakenly appear in the trade, masquerading as the original plant. These may include A. columnaris, A. araucana, and A. bidwillii. While it’s not common to come across these, if you happen to acquire one, their cultural requirements are comparable to that of the Norfolk Island pine.

How to Grow Norfolk Island Pine From Seed

The most effective method for propagating Norfolk Island pine is through seeds. To begin, lay the seeds flat on a germination medium, preferably a moist mixture of peat and sand. It’s important not to cover the seeds. Encourage germination by lightly misting them or providing a covering.

For optimal propagation, ensure the seeds are exposed to bright, indirect light if indoors. If placed outside, provide partial sun, limiting direct sunlight to three to four hours. Look for signs of germination, such as the emergence of a tap root and initial top growth.

Potting and Repotting Norfolk Island Pine

A potted Norfolk Island pine should only be considered for repotting if it has become root-bound or if its roots are starting to emerge from the drainage hole. Given that young Norfolk Island pines are relatively slow growers, you may find it possible to extend the repotting interval to every other year, rather than annually. As the plant matures, its growth rate will naturally increase.

When it comes time to report in the spring, particularly for larger specimens, select a pot made of any material that includes ample weighty components like potting sand. This added weight will help stabilize the plant. Opt for a peaty, sandy potting mix with a slightly acidic pH, which is ideal for its well-being. Ensure that the new pot is only a few inches larger than the current one, while also providing plenty of drainage holes for proper water flow.

Common Pests & Plant Diseases

Common pests and plant diseases can have a significant impact on the health and vitality of your plants. Recognizing and addressing these issues early on is crucial for maintaining a thriving garden or indoor plant collection. Here are some of the most prevalent pests and diseases to be aware of:

Common Pests:

  • Aphids: These tiny insects feed on plant sap and can cause leaves to become distorted or discolored.
  • Mealybugs: They appear as small, cotton-like clusters on plants and feed on sap, weakening the plant.
  • Spider Mites: These minuscule pests can cause stippling (tiny yellow or white dots) on leaves and leave behind fine webbing.
  • Whiteflies: These small, white insects congregate on the undersides of leaves, sucking sap and causing leaf yellowing and wilting.
  • Scale Insects: They appear as small, waxy bumps on stems and leaves and can cause reduced growth and leaf discoloration.

Common Plant Diseases:

  • Powdery Mildew: This fungal disease presents as a powdery white substance on leaves, inhibiting photosynthesis.
  • Downy Mildew: Another type of mildew, this one appears as yellow or white spots on leaves with a downy texture underneath.
  • Root Rot: Usually caused by overwatering or poorly-draining soil, it leads to the decay of plant roots and can ultimately kill the plant.
  • Anthracnose: This fungal disease causes dark, sunken lesions on leaves, stems, and fruit, often leading to tissue death.
  • Bacterial Leaf Spot: Characterized by small, dark spots on leaves, this disease is caused by bacteria and can lead to defoliation.

Prevention and Treatment:

  • Regular Inspection: Check your plants regularly for signs of pests or diseases. Early detection is key.
  • Isolation: Quarantine new plants for a few weeks to ensure they aren’t harboring any pests or diseases.
  • Proper Watering: Avoid overwatering, as it can lead to root rot and create conditions conducive to fungal diseases.
  • Natural Predators: Introduce beneficial insects like ladybugs or predatory mites to help control pest populations.
  • Neem Oil or Insecticidal Soap: These natural remedies can be effective against many common pests.
  • Fungicides: For fungal diseases, consider using a suitable fungicide as recommended for the specific pathogen.

Remember, each plant species may have its unique susceptibility to certain pests and diseases, so it’s important to research and understand the specific needs of your plants.

Common Problems With Norfolk Island Pines

This adaptable tree may face a few challenges throughout its life, and it has a way of communicating them through the color of its needles.

Brown Needles:
If you notice the needles turning brown, it could be due to the tree’s sensitivity to both extreme cold and heat. Wide fluctuations in temperature may lead to this discoloration. Additionally, overwatering or underwatering could be contributing factors.

Yellow Needles:
Yellowing needles may signal that the tree is not receiving adequate sunlight, or it could be getting too much. Drastic temperature shifts may also be a factor in causing this color change.

Needle Drop:
If your tree starts shedding needles, it’s likely due to either overwatering or insufficient light. It’s important to address these factors to ensure the tree’s health and vitality.

What is a Norfolk Island Pine?

The Norfolk Island Pine (Araucaria heterophylla) is not a true pine tree, but rather a coniferous evergreen tree native to Norfolk Island in the South Pacific. It’s a popular houseplant known for its symmetrical, upward-growing branches.

How do I care for a Norfolk Island Pine?

Provide it with bright, indirect light, and well-draining soil, and water it when the top inch of soil feels dry. Keep it away from drafts and extreme temperatures.

Can I grow a Norfolk Island Pine outdoors?

Yes, in suitable climates (USDA zones 10-11), Norfolk Island Pines can be grown outdoors. They prefer moderately moist, porous, and sandy soil in full sun.

How tall can a Norfolk Island Pine grow?

When grown outdoors, it can reach heights of up to 200 feet. Indoors, it typically grows to a height of 3 to 8 feet but can be trained as a bonsai.

How often should I water my Norfolk Island Pine?

Water it thoroughly when the top inch of soil is dry to the touch. Ensure excess water drains out of the pot, and avoid letting the plant sit in standing water.

What pests and diseases are common for Norfolk Island Pines?

Common pests include aphids, mealybugs, scales, mites, and whiteflies. Overwatering can lead to fungal diseases like anthracnose.

When should I repot my Norfolk Island Pine?

Repot when the plant becomes root-bound or when roots start emerging from the drainage hole. Younger plants may be repotted every other year, while mature ones may require more frequent repotting.

Can I propagate a Norfolk Island Pine?

Yes, they can be propagated from seeds. Place seeds on a moist, peaty, sandy mix without covering. Provide bright, indirect light and maintain medium moisture levels. Look for signs of germination like tap roots and top growth.


The Norfolk Island Pine (Araucaria heterophylla) is a unique and versatile plant that can thrive both indoors and outdoors, provided it receives the right care and conditions. With its striking symmetrical branches and adaptability to various environments, it has become a popular choice among plant enthusiasts.

To ensure the health and well-being of your Norfolk Island Pine, pay attention to factors like light, soil, watering, and temperature. Detecting and addressing pests and diseases early on is crucial for its long-term vitality.

Whether used as a living Christmas tree, a landscape feature, or an elegant indoor houseplant, the Norfolk Island Pine offers beauty and character to any space. By following the recommended care guidelines, you can enjoy the beauty of this remarkable tree for years to come.

Mary Lloyster

Mary Lloyster

Mary, the ultimate oracle of indoor gardening! With years of experience and a flourishing indoor expo, Mary has become our go-to expert for all things related to house plants and indoor gardening. Despite her background in Political Science, Mary has discovered a delightful way to blend her full-time job with a touch of relaxation through indoor gardening. Now, she eagerly shares her wisdom and experiences with our readers on a daily basis. If you have any inquiries about house plants, indoor gardening techniques, or caring tips, don't hesitate to leave a comment for Mary in the designated section below!

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